In Eritrea, while the variety of animals has decreased over time, there remains a significant amount of which that continues to dwell here.
Some of the more common mammals found in Eritrea are the Abyssinian hare, camels, African wild cats
, black-backed jackals, vervet monkeys, and hamadryas baboons
. In the mountains, lions, Tora hartebeests
, and greater kudus
can be found. On the Bure peninsula, the most common are the gazelle, but there are also leopards, hyenas, foxes, zebra, crocodiles, oryxs, antelope, and greater kudus in sparse amounts. Eritrea, once abundant with elephants, now has a limited amount. Most are found near the Gash River where they live symbiotically with olive baboons.
There are 537 species of bird in Eritrea. Many nesting birds are attracted, including the Arabian bustard
. Ostriches are also common here, along with the Ethiopian oriole and white-billed starling. Eritrea lies on a migratory path as well and attracts many coastal birds to its shores such as gulls, terns, waders, and the white-water Kingfisher, endemic, within Africa, to Eritrea.
The reef on the coast of Eritrea is abundant with marine life. Angelfish
, swordfish, parrotfish
, and various other species of fish are quite populous. Marine turtles, most commonly the green and hawksbill turtles
, can be found frequenting the waters around Eritrea. Dolphins are also usual inhabitants of this area, specifically the common and spinner dolphins
. Mako, hammerhead and tiger sharks live in these waters too, along with manta rays and the now endangered dugong
, or seacow.
As far as snakes go, the most common of these are the deadly saw-scaled viper, puff adder, and red-spitting cobra. There are three species of python that can be found as well. For lizards there are the Eritrean Agama, chameleons, the Red-headed Rock Agama, Johnston's Long-tailed lizard, and the Yellow-throated Plated lizard.