Sao Tome and Principe is an island nation of the western coast of Central Africa. Combined the islands are merely 50 miles long and 24 miles wide. They are constituted of mountainous peaks and forests and coastlines. The climate is tropical with colder temperatures in the mountainous regions. Not many animals are endemic to Sao Tome and Principe, excluding birds.
The only native land mammal to Sao Tome and Principe is the Sao Tome Shrew. This small mammal scavenges throughout the forest and the coastal areas. It is endangered due to both habitat loss and the size of its natural range.
The other native mammals that call Sao Tome and Principe home are bats. The Sao Tome Collared Bat is one of the most prominent. It feeds on fruit and nectar and lives in the forest and edges of the mountainous regions. The Sao Tome Free-Tailed Bat lives in the dry coastal and human habituated areas of the island. It feeds primarily on insects. These bats as well as few others that have been introduced to the island are threatened by habitat loss.
The claim to fame of Sao Tome and Principe, though, it is endemic birds. The Sao Tome Ibis is endemic to the island and is the world's smallest ibis. This tiny bird can be found in the forest regions scrounging the floor for food. The Giant Sunbird, the world's largest sunbird is also native to the island nation. It is often seen in the forests as well. The Sao Tome Fiscal is the resident songbird. All of the birds of Sao Tome are endangered to due to habitat loss.
The seas around Sao Tome and Principe also teem with life. During different times of the year a visitor can witness the Blue Marlin and Yellow Fin Tuna. If that is not sufficient the visitor can return to witness the Humpback
Whales as they migrate past the islands. Four species of turtle can also be observed nesting on the nation. Those turtles are the Green Turtle and the Olive Ridley as well as the endangered Hawksbill and Leatherback.