Turkmenistan has four distinct habitats for animals. The land is comprised of vast deserts, mountains, plains and the shore of the Caspian Sea. There are also many nature reserves where animal and plant life are cultivated and protected.
The desert areas have an amazing amount of animal life. Several insect species reside there including ants, termites, ticks, beetles, tarantulas, scorpions and spiders, one of which is called a karakurt and is more poisonous than a cobra. Desert reptiles include the giant grey lizard, tortoise, big-eared toad, gecko and dozens of snakes including the cobra. 200 species of birds can be seen in the desert, including the golden eagle
, the saker falcon
, sparrows, skylarks
, jays and long legged buzzards as well as night time flying long-eared and horned owls. Waterfowl can also be observed as they are attracted to the water reservoirs in the area. The desert mammals are widely varied beginning with rodents like gopher and jerboas who leave interesting patterns in the sand. The tolai hare, gazelles, antelope, foxes, wildcats and the caracal
lynx can also be found here.
The shore of the Caspian Sea in winter is home to flocks of ducks and geese and swans. The abundant sea life consists of herring, sprat, roach and sturgeon
The mountainous areas of Turkmenistan support many animal species such as goat, cheetah
, lynx, leopard, snow leopard
The plains habitat supports the hedgehog barchans cat, corsac fox
, jackals, wild boar
, goitered gazelle
, rare pink deer, and wild donkeys as well as various species of birds. The tolai hare can be found here in addition to its desert habitat.
The golden eagle which is one of the largest eagles in the world, can be seen in all of the different habitat areas in Turkmenistan.